Implicative : “if/when X, Y” = Factual. If X happens, than 100% chance that Y.

Ex: If you put some water in the -30 degree freezer, it will freeze.

Predictive : Hypothetical.

Ex : If my grade are lower than 70%, I’ll take remedial.

Counterfactual/Speculative : Unlikely / false.

Ex : If I had stopped school, I would have worked in an industry.


0 : Present-present (simple)

Ex : If you eat more carbohydrate, you have more energy.

1 : Predictive (present-future)

Ex : If you study harder, you will get higher grades.

2 : Hypothetical (past-future – would)

Ex : If you studied harder, you would get higher grades.

3 : Counterfactual (past perfect)

Ex : If you had finished the homework, you would have submitted it.

Mixed : Mix of 2,3 (counterfactual)

Ex : If you slept in a cooler room, you would have slept well.

If you had checked again your exam paper, you wouldn’t worry much about small mistakes.


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